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Web Site - Terminology

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Last updated September 26,2004

Web Robots & Spiders
Web Robots or spiders are programs that traverse the Web automatically. Some people call them Web Wanderers, Crawlers, or Spiders. These pages have further information about these Web Robots.
So what are Robots, Spiders, Web Crawlers, Worms, and Ants
They're all names for the same sort of thing, with slightly different connotations:
Robots - the generic name. Spiders - same as robots, but sounds cooler in the press.
Also known as Worms - same as robots, although technically they are a worm because they are a replicating program, unlike a robot.
Web crawlers - same as robots, but note WebCrawler is a specific robot
WebAnts - distributed cooperating robots.


What is Bandwith?
Have you heard of bandwith from your provider and what is that. Usually measured in bits per second (bps) or thousands of bits per second (Kbps) or millions of bits per second (Mbps) How fast is information being transmitted to your computers internet connection? If you are using a dial - up of 56 K than you can expect to receive a maximum of 56 K bits per second of information. If you are using a cable or ADSL connection to the internet you can expect to receive a maximum of about 300 K bits per second of information. More internet users have made a switch from dial-up to cable because of price drops. You can obtain faster bandwith these days for under fifty dollars.


What is in a URL name?

 What does and how do I read

First of all URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator  this is the standard for a web address. The http stands for hpertext transfer protocol. This is used when one web page is sent to another computer. It tells the computer what type of page it will be. This page is the most commonly used page. If you see an address with a " s" like this https you know that this page is encypted for safe credit card transactions. The www refers to a web server which stores the web page. Because the internet is made up of millions of servers all over the world, we also know that www stands for World Wide Web. Every address has a domain or title, which is an identity given to a specific web site. There can only be one given domain name per web site in the world. We know that there are varences of web names but once a name has been registared it is can only be used by the registed owner. The com stands for commercial and at the moment is the most common level in a domain name


.bin or .hqu What is the difference?

The .bin and .hqx file formats - what's the difference?

When downloading files sometimes , you might be given a choice of two different file formats, MacBinary (.bin) or BinHex (.hqx).

What is the difference between these two file formats? A .bin file is typically smaller than an .hqx file, but is less compatible with earlier Macintosh systems, such as Mac OS 7.0, 8.0, and 8.5. An .hqx file is typically larger, but is more compatible with earlier systems.


Camcorder Formats
For some time now, I have been looking for a Camcorder. There are several Camcorders that use different formats. My concern is which one is right for me and will it be around in the near future.

Retirement or Not
Like all good things there comes a time to retire and many of the Camcorder that have been well used are becoming existent. The push today is digital

 Super Video These were at one time very popular among travelers They were very large and used a tape cassette called a Super VHS tape. This tape could be viewed right after it was recorded on. A player which looked much like our VCR's of today The only difference was a better image from regular VHS tapes. Super Video had a resolution of up to 400 lines. Most televisions of that time produced less than 400 lines of resolution. This format was often used of creating a master tape in which other copies could be made from. These cameras are no longer found at your local video store. The tapes are still available but are being phased out.
 Video8 Uses a tape that is smaller than a tape that would go into your home VHS player. Has a resolution of not more than 270 lines. If you were to edit this tape on your computer you would need an analogy to digital capturing card. Each time a copy is made from this tape and the many plays of this tape will reduce resolution. These cameras need to hands to hold them while recording. There is limited features and these camcorders are hard to find.
 Hi 8 This format will use 8 mm tapes to record on. After  the tape has been recorded on you can play back from the camera  One tape is capable of holding up to 5 hours of recording. The image quality has been improved up to 400 lines of resolution. These camcorders are getting harder to buy new. However the tapes will be available for many years to come.
 Digital8 Now we are using a much higher resolution of 500 lines. This is accomplished because of digital technology. The is no reduction of picture quality when coping to another source. Is able to use 8 mm cassettes to record on. The down side is that it can at present record up to 2.5 hours The good side is that this tape is inexpensive and will be around for a many years more. This has been a tested and true format which will be around for many  years to come
 MiniDV This is the camera format that we see advertised the most. Digital video has been around for a few years. Cameras are falling in price to where almost anyone can own a Mini DV camcorder. Like the 8 mm cassette the MiniDV cassette is digital What digital means is that there is so little loss of picture quality when coping, that the naked eye would unlikely notice. The cassette is much smaller than an 8 mm and cost a few dollars more. Tapes can hold up to about sixty minutes but some of the later camcorders by reducing record speed have increased this time. Like many of the other format this tape can not be played in a VCR, however there are players available. This is most often used if your editing from a computer. No capture card is required, however a firewire or IEEE 1394 interface is a must. This has been a tested and true format which will be around for many years to come
 MicroMV Let us not stop here. Lets see if we can make a tape which is real small and a camera that will fit into a shirt pocket. Just don't forget where you put it cause there is no beeper like on your wireless phone to find it again. This format is 70% smaller than the MiniDV tape. It uses a MPEG2 compression to record images and sound. The sound is so good that it can be compared to satellite broadcasting and DVD video. A firewire or IEEE 1394 interface is used to download into a computer for editing. This is a new format which has had good success from consumers and will be around for many years to come.

The Question:
"the identity certificate is not yet valid."
I tried to renew my expired membership, at a favorite gaming web site and I received a message saying "the information you view and send will be readable to others while in transit, and it may not go to the intended party," because "the identity certificate is not yet valid." Is there any explanation for this? Is it safe? It seems like someone is actually trying to drive the customers away. Incidentally, the same message seems to appear at a lot of
e - commerce web sites lately.

The Answer

You will find this occurring on many web sites and applications that run on the web for the next few months -- many MS certificates are expiring in the Jan-April 2002 time frame (the assumption was that these applications and web sites would apply and pay for new certificates after 2001). Most of these sites and applications purchased their certificates in '98-'99.

The 'expired' certificate has no effect on the quality of the site or application (most sites and web applications don't even have a 'trusted' certificate).

It's up to you if you want to continue using the site or app -- but no harm actually occurrs.

It is however still up to the company to fork over $ for another certificate? Your host can probably issue you one from their web server for minimal cost.


The lifetime of a certificate issued by a Windows 2000 Certificate Authority (CA) is two years by default. After two years, the certificate expires and is not trusted for use. There may be situations when you need to override the default expiration date for certificates issued by an intermediate or an issuing CA.

For certificates issued by Standalone CAs, the validity period is governed by the registry entry discussed below. This value applies to all certificates issued by the CA.

For certificates issued by Enterprise CAs, the validity period is hard - coded into the template used to create the certificate. Windows 2000 does not support modification of these templates. The sole exception is a certificate issued to a subordinate CA. The subordinate CA certificate template does not specify a validity period. Instead, this value it governed by the registry entry discussed below.


To modify the validity period settings for a CA, follow these steps.
WARNING : Using Registry Editor incorrectly can cause serious problems that may
require you to reinstall your operating system. Microsoft cannot guarantee that problems resulting from the incorrect use of Registry Editor can be solved. Use Registry Editor at your own risk.

For information about how to edit the registry, view the "Changing Keys and Values" Help topic in Registry Editor (Regedit.exe) or the "Add and Delete Information in the Registry" and "Edit Registry Data" Help topics in Regedt32.exe. Note that you should back up the registry before you edit it. If you are running Windows NT or Windows 2000, you should also update your Emergency Repair Disk (ERD).

Start Registry Editor.
Locate the following registry key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\CertSrv\Configuration\


Double - click the ValidityPeriod REG_SZ registry value and change the validity period to one of the following choices: Days, Weeks, Months, or Years.


Double - click the ValidityPeriodUnits REG_DWORD registry value and change the number of days, weeks, months, or years you want (for example, 1, 2, 3, and so on).


Stop and restart Certificate Services.

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