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 updated May 3, 2006

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Digital Memory
What is digital memory? Just as it sounds it is a type of memory that uses a circuit in which to capture and store limited information. This memory can come in different shapes and sizes. The size is dependent on the application that it is going to be used for. There are four types or of this memory. Compact Flash, Secure Digital, Memory Stick and Smart Media. Used mainly in digital cameras the memory is measured in Megabytes or MB. This memory is also known as a card or stick and comes in predetermined megabyte amounts. You can buy 8MB, 16MB,32MB,64MB,128MB, 256MB, 512MB and 1GB.

 Apple cuts price of flat-screen IMac, EMac PCs as
much as 13%

Bloomberg News
Tuesday, February 4, 2003

CUPERTINO, Calif. - Apple Computer Inc., the maker of Macintosh personal
computers, lowered the price of some iMac and eMac models by as much as 13
percent as it tries to boost sales with faster and lower-priced systems.

The company has decided to only sell the two best-sellers from its line of
flat-screened iMacs and will cut $200 off the price of each one, said Greg Joswiak,
Apple's head of hardware marketing.

Apple has been trying to revive sales after a two-year slump in computer demand
by developing new machines and lowering prices on existing models. Last week,
Apple added faster processors to its Power Mac G4 computers and lowered the
price by as much as 20 percent.

The Cupertino, California-based company will charge $1,799 for a flat-panel iMac
with a 17-inch screen and $1,299 for the 15-inch model. Apple cut the price of its
one-piece eMac computers to $999 and $1,299, from $1,099 and $1,499, Joswiak

Apple shares fell 27 cents to $14.39 at 12:20 p.m. on the Nasdaq Stock Market.
They've dropped 43 percent in the past year.


Network Wireless War Games

Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) is a technology which uses unlicensed airspace to connect any laptop or hand held computers through communication to a base station. This standard has been adopted by companies such as Apple and Mircrosoft in there software and hardware. Known as 802.IIb it is fast becoming the way to set up any network. No more cables means the freedom to move around in an area as long as you do not go out of radio range of the network base.

Wi-Fi is fast technology and user friend. All you need is a base station and a card which fits into the laptop PC slot, add software and your practically up and running. Although speeds do vary with network traffic, most can traval up to, two megabits per second in 100 metres from their base.

I had thought about setting up my home computer on a wireless network. I too have read countless article indicating that they are safe. I read that they had built in encyption and that know one short of being on that computer physically would be able to break into.

Lately I have seen programs relating to how easy it is to hack into corporate networks. So easy that it can be done from a car with a laptop and other gear that can be picked up at an electronics store. The term is "War Driving " take a hacker in a car with a laptop. Add a software program called Netstumbler and a GPS (global positioning system) add some time.

The weekness in the network is in the transmission from the base to the recieving / transmitting computer. Scanning the audio wave which float in the air that we breath. Is there a solution to making the wireless network safe, at the present "No" there is not. At the present there is nothing out there that a hacker can not break into. This is a problem and it is being addressed right now.

The present encryption system being used is called WEP or Wired Equivalent Privacy. This is an algorithm code but is still opened for outside attack. In this network it is highly suggested that companies use the VPN or Virtual Private Network. These are private tunnels which communicate between a laptop and a base. They are set up to locate any weakness in the system

When Wireless networks first came out sercurity was developed a long with them. Products that use the Wi-Fi system my have data scrambling technology which when used can help. However; the answer is still don't transmit any important or confidential information over the airways. Just as we would not do our banking over a cell phone or a wireless phone for the same reason. If your not sure than stay with the phone, DSL, or cable system. If you are already setup on a wireless network than talk to your network teck and get the very best protection. Atleast be aware of what your system weaknesses and strengths.

IBM Apple and Motorola
What does IBM, Apple and Motorola all have in common, the RISC chip. Apple/ Macintosh computers uses a cpu that is designed with the RISC architecture. Motorola has been Apples main supplier for G4 computer chips. However IBM has also stepped into the same field and is developing a chip in which Apple will use in future products. This could lower the cost of a mac in the future as well


What is RAM
I get asked this question a lot. What is RAM? RAM stands for Random, Access Memory and is megabytes of memory .

RAM is a circut board with a row of on it. The circut board is plugged in to a holder found on the motherboard in side of every computer. This memory works when the computer is switched on and acts as a temporary storage area for the operating system and those
programs you are using. RAM chip are normally long in shaped and made of a silicon board, with transistors, magnets, and gold or sliver leads. On one end. are many pin like strands of metal- these plug into a socket on the mother board. Memory helps increase the processing time of a computer. It reduction the lag time when the computer draws information from the hard.

RAM should be a first step to upgrading any computer old or new. RAM is fairly inexpenssive, and is easy to install.

Different Types of RAM

There are several different kinds of RAM which are used in our home computers today. As computers are made to be faster the RAM chip are also made to work faster. However each computer at the time of its design uses a RAM chip design for that computer. Different computers, depending on the motherboard will take different
types of RAM chips. You can not mix and match different "types" of RAM chips as I will explain later. You can however mix memory amounts, such as using an eight megabit RAM chip with a 64 megabit chip combination. Every computer has a limit to how much RAM it can except. On the mother board are slots that except additional RAM beside what was originally installed when you first bought your computer. You can change the present RAM or add to it by purchasing different amounts of RAM. RAM can be bought in different size amounts of memory. For example you can find 2MB, 4MB, 8MB, 16MB, 32MB,64MB, 128MB, and 512MB. This means depending on how much you spend you can fill all the slots in a computer to the maximum or not. If your computer for example has a maximum of 512 of RAM and has four slots you could use four 64 megabits chips to equal 256 or four 128 megabits chips to equal 512 and fill the maximum of that computer. However you can not go over the limit set for that computer.

72 Pin | 32 MB | SIMM

Computers use SIMMs or DIMMS or the new DDR. There are several types of SIMM which stands for Single In line Memory Module. SIMMs are installed in pairs. You need to buy two SIMMs to make up your required amount. If you have four slots in your computer and the limit was 32 and you wanted two install the limit you would need four 16 megabits chip sets. SIMMs are typically found in older computers but are still available at most computer retail stores.

168 | 128 MB | 133 speed | DIMM
This is for a note book only. Notice the smaller size.

DIMMs or Dual In line Memory Modules . They do not need to be bought in pairs like the SIMM. These can stand alone when installed on the mother board. Each RAM chip sits in a slot on the mother board the same as the SIMM did. Their speed of transmission is noted as nanoseconds. Most popular clock times are 60 nanosecond very fast, 70 nanosecond average speed, 80 nanosecond (ns) slow and used on cheaper built computers.

168 pin | 128 MB | DDR

Today computers are using DDR RAM which are the next evolution of RAM. DDR RAM which stands for double data rate are much faster than the DIMM. DDR RAM is able to transmit data on both the rise and fall of the clock signal. The old clock speed that the computers cpu ran at was 133. These new chips have a clock speed of 167 MHz same as the new system bus.

How To Identify The Correct RAM

There are many ways to determine the correct type of RAM for your computer such as consulting your computer manual or calling your technical support, or calling the computer retailer where you bought the computer. If you know the model of the computer the internet is a great source as well. The most reliable way, especially for first timers, is to call Waymore Webs for technical support Only the experienced should try to determine which type of memory their computer takes.

Static Destroys RAM

One very important note is that RAM is easily destroyed by static. If you touch the chips with your fingers the static can discharge into chip and destroy it. Either a static strap is used which is grounded usually to the power supply of the computer or the board is handled by holding the outside edges of the circuit board.

168 | 512 MB | DRAM

Why Should You Upgrade

The main advantage to upgrading your system's RAM deals with an issue of performance. As mentioned in the previous section, the memory in you PC acts as a working and temporary storage area for the operating system and the programs you run. When RAM gets filled up, the computer then uses your hard disk for this function which is considerably slower. Some warning signs that it may be time to upgrade your computer's
memory are:

  • Your computer slows down when you're working with large files or many programs at once
  • You repeatedly get an error message from your operating system stating that you are "out of memory"
  • You are wanting to upgrade to then next edition of Windows, but the minimum RAM requirements meet or exceed your computers current amount of memory

To check your computer's current amount of memory, right click My computer and select properties. A box will appear stating how much memory is currently installed in your system. If you run many applications simultaneously, 256 MB is a good standard to go by.

If you need help to determine the type of RAM used by your computer send us an email with the model number of your computer and the make.


Golive 6
Anyone who thought it to be a good idea to upgrade from Golive 5 to 6 is in for a shock. Golive 5 is not computable with Golive 6 because they are geared for totally different operating systems. The Macintosh version is upgrade to the new Apple OS 10 and the Windows works with the XP. Thank Adobe for that one. I find this happens a lot to programs of first versions, but this is not. Read the requirements from off the box and check the internet before upgrading to this new version.

What is an alt.config?


Alt is a special part of the Usenet. It is anarchic and there is no central committee that runs it. Is operated by only those who use it. Other parts of Usenet (e.g. the "Big-8") have complex and rigid procedures for creating groups. Alt does not. New groups can be created by anyone.

What is an alt.config?

The alt. hierarchy of Usenet was created with no administrator - no leader over all groups. Alt was created with the intention that it would be overseen by an alt.config, which is a group of knowledgeable volunteers who help people create viable groups. Anyone can be a contributor to alt.config. You can create a newsgroup in alt,

The alt.config' s role is to advise proponents of new alt groups. Alt.config does not have the real power of an administrator, but its opinions matter a lot to the people you are really trying to convince when you propose a group: the news administrators (newsadmins).

Why are 'news administrators the important ones, and who are they?

News administrators work for ISPs and or other organizations that provide Usenet feeds. Groups are decided there if to be carried or not carried on their service. When received a control message asking them to honor a new alt group. This is what they look for:

  • Check that a properly formatted and justified control message has been lodged at
  • See what alt.config's opinion of the proposal was.
  • Many newsadmins watch alt.config and if they see a group newgrouped without it being discussed here first... well... don't say you weren't warned.

    If they are unhappy with the proposal or the control message, they will not honor your group and no - one using their newsgroup feed will see or be able to post to your group. That's why it's so important to get your proposal right: it's the newsadmins you're trying to convince. Alt.config can help you convince the newsadmins, but you've got to convince alt.config first!

What sorts of topics are discussed in alt newsgroups?

Any subject, or topic is bound to be there. As of the first of 2002 there was a count of 14,188 active alt groups .

What are all the stupid groups like

Any fool can create an alt group, and many fools do. Please resist the temptation to add to the list of useless groups that just waste people's bandwidth. Alt.config's job is to try to help people create new groups that will survive and flourish.

What groups are not appropriate to alt?

  • Groups of purely local interest. Alt is a global: your local nightclub is not. For regional discussion, use a regional group (e.g. in the uk.* hierarchy.) The same applies to groups about TV shows not aired internationally.
  • Vanity groups that only serve to fluff up your ego.
  • Advertise commercial products.
  • Revenge groups
  • Groups that seem designed or destined to be offensive enough to start huge flame wars (e.g.

What does alt.config assess in a proposal?

They are looking for a proposal for a new group which is usually just judged on whether it is proposed properly or not. Such as a group name, or justification, charter etc. The subject matter of the group is not usually relevant. So, if you propose a Britney Spears group, alt.config is not going to attack it simply because they hate Britney Spears as a performer.


Ten Things You Want To Do To Your Computer Bimonthly
 1  Open up the housing of your computer and vacuum out the dust balls.
 2  With a can of air blow out your key board.
 3  With a screen cleaning wipe for computers clean off your monitor.
 4  Test your UPS by unplugging it while your computer is on..
 5  Run a utilities disc for optiming your hard drive and checking for virus..
 6  Up grade your operation system to the latest if your computer can run it.
 7  Change enterance pass words if you use them...
 8  Vacuum around your computer tower if it is on the floor.
 9  Throw out file on your hard drive or burn them onto a CD - R that you never use.
 10  Clean up your computer office


HP DVD Writer 100i

I came across an ad for a DVD writer that was reasonably priced and is offered from a company that has been around a while. Although DVD writers are not new those that have been seen selling on the market have not been cheap. At present DVD writers are slow and a blank DVD disc can cost up to sixty dollars Canadian. Over the last two years, the software has been greatly improved and the likeliness of destroying a DVD disc is rare. Don't get me wrong the software is not perfect and you still can destroy a DVD disc. We have heard of commercial DVD writers selling for several thousands of dollars and that made them highly unlikely to buy for the consumer. Companies like Pioneer and LaCie were selling DVD writers last year for just over the one thousand dollar Canadian mark. Writing speeds however were back to square one these writers could burn a DVD disc at no faster than 2x. There were days when CD - R and CD - RW were burning CDs at those 2x speeds. Today CD - R writer / burners are as fast as 16 and 24x speeds and their cost are under two hundred dollars.

Hewlett Packard has a dvd - writer model 100i that will write 4.7GB worth of valuable data to a disc. These files can be raw data or video. However even with the HP we are achieving writing speeds of up to2.4x rewrite. The good news is that this writer is well below the one thousand dollar cost.

It seems that DVD writers are here to stay and with their popularity we will see more companies producing them at a cost reasonable to everyone. Over the next year DVD software will be able to produce workable discs when writing at faster speeds than the present 2x. With the introduction of DVD writers / Players in Apples G4 and some of HP computers writers will come down in price. Although at present we are seeing DVD disc holding 4.7GB of data a single disc using both sides is capable of storing a maximum of a 11GB of data. DVDs will likely be another alternative back up to the large hard drives offered on newer computers today. For more information on this DVD writer visit the Hewlett Packard web site at


Speedy Upgrade

It is a topic that I can not stress enough. You have the choice to keep your existing computer and by upgrade it will keep it more recent or to buy a new computer. One problem that you may find with up grading to a totally new computer is will your old software programs work with the new operating system that comes with your new computer. If you have hardware add-ons will they work with your new system. But than again maybe your rich and thinking about selling the old one to someone else and doing the whole thing which would be a new computer and software too.

If your like me you likely know your present computer well. If it does something unusual you know how to fix it. With a new computer it is likely during the break-in period to crash, freeze and maybe even take a trip or two into service. that is until you grow a custom with the personality that it has taken on daily. I have two computers a tower and a newer laptop. I originally bought it with the intentions of being able to learn and than do my own upgrades. In the the past five years this is what I had done.

According to most service departments are included the number one very first thing to up grade is (you guessed it) RAM. Which RAM am I talking about? There are a couple of different types of RAM that the user. (a user is the person typing on the keep board of the computer) There is video ram which powers the amount of color which will show up on the monitor. In general 1 or 2 MB of video RAM will provide a 14 or 15 inch monitor with up to one million different pixels (We the user know this as color combinations)If you have 4 MB, you can provide a 17 inch monitor with at least one million different pixels.

However by adding just the bare basic amount of VideoRAM the monitor will rewrite itself slower. You may notice the speed difference if you are using software like Photoshop or playing most games today. Most often a computer company will either offer the user to add VideoRAM up to a maximum limit. If this videoRAM is not enough a video card manufactured by another company can be installed in one of the PCI slots provided in the back of most computers. Video cards can provide videoRAM sizes presently up to 128 MB, this compute my tower is running with an older card by ATI called Nexus 128 that ran with 32 MB of videoRAM. The original computer cam with 1 MB and was upgrade to two at the factory. We upgraded it to its maximum of 4 MB and than later installed the video card. Games become more detailed and Photoshop redraws itself after filters are introduced into an image. Voodoo is another excellent video gaming cared if this interest you.

There is another kind of RAM and sometimes it is referred to as on board or system RAM. The computer manufacture will assign a certain amount of on board memory. This is not user accessible and used by the computers clock and other on board systems need on start up to make the computer run. In the new computers a bio chip is used to contain the most resent instruction codes to run the clock and load operating programs. It lets the computer know that there is a hard drive and this is where the operating system is at start up. In older computers in the 70 's the computer would go to the floppy drive first to look for the start up software.

This is the most common RAM that is referred to and suggested to be the first on your list of upgrades. This RAM is responsible for allowing you to run several software programs all at one time on your computer. It will also allow you to operate more of the icons now incorporated into both the Windows, Mac, and Lunxs operating systems. Recently manufactures are telling us that the more RAM on board with the most recent operating systems will provide better internet access and email access too. One question that no one tells you about is that all home computers will run a RAM chech on the starting up of your computer. The more RAM the longer it will take for your computer to start up, however once it is ready to go it will be faster. RAM is still cheap so buy as much as your computer can hold. If your computer can handle 1.5 GB like the recent Apple computers than go for no less than 256 or 512. At the time of buying this computer tower there was a whooping 4 MB of RAM and now it has 224 MB and runs like a dream.

Next week lets talk about other upgrades to look into.


Intels' Pentium 4: 3.5 GB Ahead of Competitors

The largest microchip maker Intel Corporation again makes a second announcement in the same week of break through of a soon to be released 2.5GB processor. Now way ahead of their competitors AMD and Apples G4. A price slashed by Intel this Christmas could see Intel shares climb to the top of the charts.

More on Intel September 9

Intels' Pentium 4: Two Gigahertz Faster Yet

The largest microchip maker Intel Corporation this week August 27) began selling a Pentium 4 processor that runs at two gigahertz. This is a two billion cycles per second processor. This doubles their own speeds from eighteen months ago.

Intel is faster than its competitor AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) which presently has its fastest chip running at 1.4 gigahertz.

Intel has also by up to 54 per cent slashed prices on their Pentium 4 chip. This is to encourage computer manufactures using the Pentium 3 chip to switch them with the new faster chip.

The consumer can expect to see these reduced prices to very shortly before Christmas. With speeds like these you be able to master any game out there for many years to come.


Personal Computer/Internet Safety Tips

Personal safety is not just having alarm system and bars on all your windows. Everyday we are hearing more about "Cybercrime" Now someone has found a way to enter your home through your computer. If your computer is for home use, or running a business your an open target. Many banks offer on line banking, and stock trading, and transferring of important information. Anything stored on your hard drive can be available to a cybercrime hacker. We are seeing an increase in the use of Cable and DSL high speed internet connections. While the computer is on the cable or DSL phone line is an open invitation for someone else to walk around your hard drive. Understand that when your computer is fully off your hard drive is off too. This means that no one can hack your computer, that is unless they are physically removing your hard drive.

While the computer is on protections is available and it is worth every penny especially when it is free (Check it out). There are many software companies who have developed good firewall software, and is available at your local computer store. Try Net Barrier version 2 for the Macintosh. Also check out Norton and Macafee, too. If you want to know more about fire walls check under New This Month under the Archives 2000 Review #2 'Fire Wall'. Now your half way there in having a secure computer

Now just because you have a fire wall in place you still need to protect yourself from data that is being downloaded from the internet or anyone else for that matter, like from a floppy disc. Once again hackers like to use email to transfer a destructive virus that will tamper, corrupt and destroy with vitals information on someone else computer hard drive. Virus software is a must whether you use the internet, email, or introduce new material to your computer via floppy disc and other removable media. Those same companies above make virus software. Norton lets you buy their software once and then through a system called live - update stay current by uploading the most up to date from off of their web site. The first year fee and a charged for each year after.

Cybercrimes are real and they can happen to you! By taking a few measures, such as turning off your machine at the end of the day. Great measures are by using a fire Wall and Virus software. These are suggestions that will help you to enjoy using your computer for a very long time.


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