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|What is digital memory? Just as it sounds it
is a type of memory that uses a circuit in which to capture and
store limited information. This memory can come in different
shapes and sizes. The size is dependent on the application that
it is going to be used for. There are four types or of this memory.
Compact Flash, Secure Digital, Memory Stick and Smart Media.
Used mainly in digital cameras the memory is measured in Megabytes
or MB. This memory is also known as a card or stick and comes
in predetermined megabyte amounts. You can buy 8MB, 16MB,32MB,64MB,128MB,
256MB, 512MB and 1GB.
Apple cuts price of flat-screen IMac, EMac PCs as
much as 13%
Tuesday, February 4, 2003
CUPERTINO, Calif. - Apple Computer Inc., the maker of Macintosh
computers, lowered the price of some iMac and eMac models by
as much as 13
percent as it tries to boost sales with faster and lower-priced
The company has decided to only sell the two best-sellers
from its line of
flat-screened iMacs and will cut $200 off the price of each one,
said Greg Joswiak,
Apple's head of hardware marketing.
Apple has been trying to revive sales after a two-year slump
in computer demand
by developing new machines and lowering prices on existing models.
Apple added faster processors to its Power Mac G4 computers and
price by as much as 20 percent.
The Cupertino, California-based company will charge $1,799
for a flat-panel iMac
with a 17-inch screen and $1,299 for the 15-inch model. Apple
cut the price of its
one-piece eMac computers to $999 and $1,299, from $1,099 and
Apple shares fell 27 cents to $14.39 at 12:20 p.m. on the
Nasdaq Stock Market.
They've dropped 43 percent in the past year.
Network Wireless War Games
Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) is a technology which uses unlicensed
airspace to connect any laptop or hand held computers through
communication to a base station. This standard has been adopted
by companies such as Apple and Mircrosoft in there software and
hardware. Known as 802.IIb it is fast becoming the way to set
up any network. No more cables means the freedom to move around
in an area as long as you do not go out of radio range of the
Wi-Fi is fast technology and user friend. All you need is
a base station and a card which fits into the laptop PC slot,
add software and your practically up and running. Although speeds
do vary with network traffic, most can traval up to, two megabits
per second in 100 metres from their base.
I had thought about setting up my home computer on a wireless
network. I too have read countless article indicating that they
are safe. I read that they had built in encyption and that know
one short of being on that computer physically would be able
to break into.
Lately I have seen programs relating to how easy it is to
hack into corporate networks. So easy that it can be done from
a car with a laptop and other gear that can be picked up at an
electronics store. The term is "War Driving " take
a hacker in a car with a laptop. Add a software program called
Netstumbler and a GPS (global positioning system) add some time.
The weekness in the network is in the transmission from the
base to the recieving / transmitting computer. Scanning the audio
wave which float in the air that we breath. Is there a solution
to making the wireless network safe, at the present "No"
there is not. At the present there is nothing out there that
a hacker can not break into. This is a problem and it is being
addressed right now.
The present encryption system being used is called WEP or
Wired Equivalent Privacy. This is an algorithm code but is still
opened for outside attack. In this network it is highly suggested
that companies use the VPN or Virtual Private Network. These
are private tunnels which communicate between a laptop and a
base. They are set up to locate any weakness in the system
When Wireless networks first came out sercurity was developed
a long with them. Products that use the Wi-Fi system my have
data scrambling technology which when used can help. However;
the answer is still don't transmit any important or confidential
information over the airways. Just as we would not do our banking
over a cell phone or a wireless phone for the same reason. If
your not sure than stay with the phone, DSL, or cable system.
If you are already setup on a wireless network than talk to your
network teck and get the very best protection. Atleast be aware
of what your system weaknesses and strengths.
IBM Apple and Motorola
|What does IBM, Apple and Motorola all have in
common, the RISC chip. Apple/ Macintosh computers uses a cpu
that is designed with the RISC architecture. Motorola has been
Apples main supplier for G4 computer chips. However IBM has also
stepped into the same field and is developing a chip in which
Apple will use in future products. This could lower the cost
of a mac in the future as well
I get asked this question a lot. What is RAM? RAM stands for
Random, Access Memory and is megabytes of memory .
RAM is a circut board with a row of on it. The circut board is
plugged in to a holder found on the motherboard in side of every
computer. This memory works when the computer is switched on
and acts as a temporary storage area for the operating system
programs you are using. RAM chip are normally long in shaped
and made of a silicon board, with transistors, magnets, and gold
or sliver leads. On one end. are many pin like strands of metal-
these plug into a socket on the mother board. Memory helps increase
the processing time of a computer. It reduction the lag time
when the computer draws information from the hard.
RAM should be a first step to upgrading any computer old or new.
RAM is fairly inexpenssive, and is easy to install.
Different Types of RAM
There are several different kinds of RAM which are used in
our home computers today. As computers are made to be faster
the RAM chip are also made to work faster. However each computer
at the time of its design uses a RAM chip design for that computer.
Different computers, depending on the motherboard will take different
types of RAM chips. You can not mix and match different "types"
of RAM chips as I will explain later. You can however mix memory
amounts, such as using an eight megabit RAM chip with a 64 megabit
chip combination. Every computer has a limit to how much RAM
it can except. On the mother board are slots that except additional
RAM beside what was originally installed when you first bought
your computer. You can change the present RAM or add to it by
purchasing different amounts of RAM. RAM can be bought in different
size amounts of memory. For example you can find 2MB, 4MB, 8MB,
16MB, 32MB,64MB, 128MB, and 512MB. This means depending on how
much you spend you can fill all the slots in a computer to the
maximum or not. If your computer for example has a maximum of
512 of RAM and has four slots you could use four 64 megabits
chips to equal 256 or four 128 megabits chips to equal 512 and
fill the maximum of that computer. However you can not go over
the limit set for that computer.
72 Pin | 32 MB | SIMM
Computers use SIMMs or DIMMS or the new DDR. There are several
types of SIMM which stands for Single In line Memory Module.
SIMMs are installed in pairs. You need to buy two SIMMs to make
up your required amount. If you have four slots in your computer
and the limit was 32 and you wanted two install the limit you
would need four 16 megabits chip sets. SIMMs are typically found
in older computers but are still available at most computer retail
168 | 128 MB |
133 speed |
This is for a note book only. Notice the smaller size.
DIMMs or Dual In line Memory Modules . They do not need to
be bought in pairs like the SIMM. These can stand alone when
installed on the mother board. Each RAM chip sits in a slot on
the mother board the same as the SIMM did. Their speed of transmission
is noted as nanoseconds. Most popular clock times are 60 nanosecond
very fast, 70 nanosecond average speed, 80 nanosecond (ns) slow
and used on cheaper built computers.
168 pin |
128 MB |
Today computers are using DDR RAM which are the next evolution
of RAM. DDR RAM which stands for double data rate are much faster
than the DIMM. DDR RAM is able to transmit data on both the rise
and fall of the clock signal. The old clock speed that the computers
cpu ran at was 133. These new chips have a clock speed of 167
MHz same as the new system bus.
How To Identify The Correct RAM
Static Destroys RAM
There are many ways to determine the correct type of RAM for
your computer such as consulting your computer manual or calling
your technical support, or calling the computer retailer where
you bought the computer. If you know the model of the computer
the internet is a great source as well. The most reliable way,
especially for first timers, is to call Waymore Webs for technical
support Only the experienced should try to determine which type
of memory their computer takes.
One very important note is that RAM is easily destroyed by
static. If you touch the chips with your fingers the static can
discharge into chip and destroy it. Either a static strap is
used which is grounded usually to the power supply of the computer
or the board is handled by holding the outside edges of the circuit
168 | 512 MB
Why Should You Upgrade
The main advantage to upgrading your system's RAM deals with
an issue of performance. As mentioned in the previous section,
the memory in you PC acts as a working and temporary storage
area for the operating system and the programs you run. When
RAM gets filled up, the computer then uses your hard disk for
this function which is considerably slower. Some warning signs
that it may be time to upgrade your computer's
- Your computer slows down when you're working with large files
or many programs at once
- You repeatedly get an error message from your operating system
stating that you are "out of memory"
- You are wanting to upgrade to then next edition of Windows,
but the minimum RAM requirements meet or exceed your computers
current amount of memory
To check your computer's current amount of memory, right click
My computer and select properties. A box will appear stating
how much memory is currently installed in your system. If you
run many applications simultaneously, 256 MB is a good standard
to go by.
If you need help to determine the type of RAM used by your
computer send us an email with the model number of your computer
and the make. firstname.lastname@example.org
|Anyone who thought it to be a good idea to upgrade
from Golive 5 to 6 is in for a shock. Golive 5 is not computable
with Golive 6 because they are geared for totally different operating
systems. The Macintosh version is upgrade to the new Apple OS
10 and the Windows works with the XP. Thank Adobe for that one.
I find this happens a lot to programs of first versions, but
this is not. Read the requirements from off the box and check
the internet before upgrading to this new version.
What is an alt.config?
Alt is a special part of the Usenet. It is anarchic and there
is no central committee that runs it. Is operated by only those
who use it. Other parts of Usenet (e.g. the "Big-8")
have complex and rigid procedures for creating groups. Alt does
not. New groups can be created by anyone.
What is an alt.config?
The alt. hierarchy of Usenet was created with no administrator
- no leader over all groups. Alt was created with the intention
that it would be overseen by an alt.config, which is a group
of knowledgeable volunteers who help people create viable groups.
Anyone can be a contributor to alt.config. You can create a newsgroup
The alt.config' s role is to advise proponents of new alt
groups. Alt.config does not have the real power of an administrator,
but its opinions matter a lot to the people you are really trying
to convince when you propose a group: the news administrators
Why are 'news administrators
the important ones, and who are they?
News administrators work for ISPs and or other organizations
that provide Usenet feeds. Groups are decided there if to be
carried or not carried on their service. When received a control
message asking them to honor a new alt group. This is what they
- Check that a properly formatted and justified control message
has been lodged at isc.org
- See what alt.config's opinion of the proposal was.
- Many newsadmins watch alt.config and if they see a group
newgrouped without it being discussed here first... well... don't
say you weren't warned.
If they are unhappy with the proposal or the control message,
they will not honor your group and no - one using their newsgroup
feed will see or be able to post to your group. That's why it's
so important to get your proposal right: it's the newsadmins
you're trying to convince. Alt.config can help you convince the
newsadmins, but you've got to convince alt.config first!
What sorts of topics are discussed
in alt newsgroups?
Any subject, or topic is bound to be there. As of the first
of 2002 there was a count of 14,188 active alt groups .
What are all the stupid groups
Any fool can create an alt group, and many fools do. Please
resist the temptation to add to the list of useless groups that
just waste people's bandwidth. Alt.config's job is to try to
help people create new groups that will survive and flourish.
What groups are not appropriate
- Groups of purely local interest. Alt is a global: your local
nightclub is not. For regional discussion, use a regional group
(e.g. in the uk.* hierarchy.) The same applies to groups about
TV shows not aired internationally.
- Vanity groups that only serve to fluff up your ego.
- Advertise commercial products.
- Revenge groups
- Groups that seem designed or destined to be offensive enough
to start huge flame wars (e.g. alt.fan.hitler)
What does alt.config assess
in a proposal?
They are looking for a proposal for a new group which is usually
just judged on whether it is proposed properly or not. Such as
a group name, or justification, charter etc. The subject matter
of the group is not usually relevant. So, if you propose a Britney
Spears group, alt.config is not going to attack it simply because
they hate Britney Spears as a performer.
Ten Things You Want To Do To Your
|| Open up the housing of your computer and
vacuum out the dust balls.
|| With a can of air blow out your key board.
|| With a screen cleaning wipe for computers
clean off your monitor.
|| Test your UPS by unplugging it while your
computer is on..
|| Run a utilities disc for optiming your
hard drive and checking for virus..
|| Up grade your operation system to the latest
if your computer can run it.
|| Change enterance pass words if you use
|| Vacuum around your computer tower if it
is on the floor.
|| Throw out file on your hard drive or burn
them onto a CD - R that you never use.
|| Clean up your computer office
HP DVD Writer 100i
I came across an ad for a DVD writer that was reasonably priced
and is offered from a company that has been around a while. Although
DVD writers are not new those that have been seen selling on
the market have not been cheap. At present DVD writers are slow
and a blank DVD disc can cost up to sixty dollars Canadian. Over
the last two years, the software has been greatly improved and
the likeliness of destroying a DVD disc is rare. Don't get me
wrong the software is not perfect and you still can destroy a
DVD disc. We have heard of commercial DVD writers selling for
several thousands of dollars and that made them highly unlikely
to buy for the consumer. Companies like Pioneer and LaCie were
selling DVD writers last year for just over the one thousand
dollar Canadian mark. Writing speeds however were back to square
one these writers could burn a DVD disc at no faster than 2x.
There were days when CD - R and CD - RW were burning CDs at those
2x speeds. Today CD - R writer / burners are as fast as 16 and
24x speeds and their cost are under two hundred dollars.
Hewlett Packard has a dvd - writer model 100i that will write
4.7GB worth of valuable data to a disc. These files can be raw
data or video. However even with the HP we are achieving writing
speeds of up to2.4x rewrite. The good news is that this writer
is well below the one thousand dollar cost.
It seems that DVD writers are here to stay and with their
popularity we will see more companies producing them at a cost
reasonable to everyone. Over the next year DVD software will
be able to produce workable discs when writing at faster speeds
than the present 2x. With the introduction of DVD writers / Players
in Apples G4 and some of HP computers writers will come down
in price. Although at present we are seeing DVD disc holding
4.7GB of data a single disc using both sides is capable of storing
a maximum of a 11GB of data. DVDs will likely be another alternative
back up to the large hard drives offered on newer computers today.
For more information on this DVD writer visit the Hewlett Packard
web site at http://dvd.hp-at-home.com/
It is a topic that I can not stress enough. You have the choice
to keep your existing computer and by upgrade it will keep it
more recent or to buy a new computer. One problem that you may
find with up grading to a totally new computer is will your old
software programs work with the new operating system that comes
with your new computer. If you have hardware add-ons will they
work with your new system. But than again maybe your rich and
thinking about selling the old one to someone else and doing
the whole thing which would be a new computer and software too.
If your like me you likely know your present computer well.
If it does something unusual you know how to fix it. With a new
computer it is likely during the break-in period to crash, freeze
and maybe even take a trip or two into service. that is until
you grow a custom with the personality that it has taken on daily.
I have two computers a tower and a newer laptop. I originally
bought it with the intentions of being able to learn and than
do my own upgrades. In the the past five years this is what I
According to most service departments are included the number
one very first thing to up grade is (you guessed it) RAM. Which
RAM am I talking about? There are a couple of different types
of RAM that the user. (a user is the person
typing on the keep board of the computer) There is video
ram which powers the amount of color which will show up on the
monitor. In general 1 or 2 MB of video RAM will provide a 14
or 15 inch monitor with up to one million different pixels (We the user know this as color combinations)If
you have 4 MB, you can provide a 17 inch monitor with at least
one million different pixels.
However by adding just the bare basic amount of VideoRAM the
monitor will rewrite itself slower. You may notice the speed
difference if you are using software like Photoshop or playing
most games today. Most often a computer company will either offer
the user to add VideoRAM up to a maximum limit. If this videoRAM
is not enough a video card manufactured by another company can
be installed in one of the PCI slots provided in the back of
most computers. Video cards can provide videoRAM sizes presently
up to 128 MB, this compute my tower is running with an older
card by ATI called Nexus 128 that ran with 32 MB of videoRAM.
The original computer cam with 1 MB and was upgrade to two at
the factory. We upgraded it to its maximum of 4 MB and than later
installed the video card. Games become more detailed and Photoshop
redraws itself after filters are introduced into an image. Voodoo
is another excellent video gaming cared if this interest you.
There is another kind of RAM and sometimes it is referred
to as on board or system RAM. The computer manufacture will assign
a certain amount of on board memory. This is not user accessible
and used by the computers clock and other on board systems need
on start up to make the computer run. In the new computers a
bio chip is used to contain the most resent instruction codes
to run the clock and load operating programs. It lets the computer
know that there is a hard drive and this is where the operating
system is at start up. In older computers in the 70 's the computer
would go to the floppy drive first to look for the start up software.
This is the most common RAM that is referred to and suggested
to be the first on your list of upgrades. This RAM is responsible
for allowing you to run several software programs all at one
time on your computer. It will also allow you to operate more
of the icons now incorporated into both the Windows, Mac, and
Lunxs operating systems. Recently manufactures are telling us
that the more RAM on board with the most recent operating systems
will provide better internet access and email access too. One
question that no one tells you about is that all home computers
will run a RAM chech on the starting up of your computer. The
more RAM the longer it will take for your computer to start up,
however once it is ready to go it will be faster. RAM is still
cheap so buy as much as your computer can hold. If your computer
can handle 1.5 GB like the recent Apple computers than go for
no less than 256 or 512. At the time of buying this computer
tower there was a whooping 4 MB of RAM and now it has 224 MB
and runs like a dream.
Next week lets talk about other upgrades to look into.
Intels' Pentium 4: 3.5 GB Ahead
The largest microchip maker Intel Corporation again makes
a second announcement in the same week of break through of a
soon to be released 2.5GB processor. Now way ahead of their competitors
AMD and Apples G4. A price slashed by Intel this Christmas could
see Intel shares climb to the top of the charts.
More on Intel September 9
Intels' Pentium 4: Two Gigahertz
The largest microchip maker Intel Corporation this week August
27) began selling a Pentium 4 processor that runs at two gigahertz.
This is a two billion cycles per second processor. This doubles
their own speeds from eighteen months ago.
Intel is faster than its competitor AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) which presently has
its fastest chip running at 1.4 gigahertz.
Intel has also by up to 54 per cent slashed prices on their
Pentium 4 chip. This is to encourage computer manufactures using
the Pentium 3 chip to switch them with the new faster chip.
The consumer can expect to see these reduced prices to very
shortly before Christmas. With speeds like these you be able
to master any game out there for many years to come.
Personal Computer/Internet Safety
Personal safety is not just having alarm
system and bars on all your windows. Everyday we are hearing
more about "Cybercrime" Now someone has found a way
to enter your home through your computer. If your computer is
for home use, or running a business your an open target. Many
banks offer on line banking, and stock trading, and transferring
of important information. Anything stored on your hard drive
can be available to a cybercrime hacker. We are seeing an increase
in the use of Cable and DSL high speed internet connections.
While the computer is on the cable or DSL phone line is an open
invitation for someone else to walk around your hard drive. Understand
that when your computer is fully off your hard drive is off too.
This means that no one can hack your computer, that is unless
they are physically removing your hard drive.
While the computer is on protections
is available and it is worth every penny especially when it is
free (Check it out). There are many software companies who have
developed good firewall software, and is available at your local
computer store. Try Net Barrier version 2 for the Macintosh.
Also check out Norton and Macafee, too. If you want to know more
about fire walls check under New This Month under the Archives
2000 Review #2 'Fire Wall'. Now your half way there in having
a secure computer
Now just because you have a fire wall
in place you still need to protect yourself from data that is
being downloaded from the internet or anyone else for that matter,
like from a floppy disc. Once again hackers like to use email
to transfer a destructive virus that will tamper, corrupt and
destroy with vitals information on someone else computer hard
drive. Virus software is a must whether you use the internet,
email, or introduce new material to your computer via floppy
disc and other removable media. Those same companies above make
virus software. Norton lets you buy their software once and then
through a system called live - update stay current by uploading
the most up to date from off of their web site. The first year
fee and a charged for each year after.
Cybercrimes are real and they can happen
to you! By taking a few measures, such as turning off your machine
at the end of the day. Great measures are by using a fire Wall
and Virus software. These are suggestions that will help you
to enjoy using your computer for a very long time.
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